Effects of technological settings on yield, curd, whey, and cheese composition during the cheese-making process from raw sheep milk in small rural dairies: Emphasis on cutting and cooking conditions
Aldalur, A.; Bustamante, M.ía.Án.; Barron, L.J.R.
Journal of Dairy Science 102(9): 7813-7825
ISSN/ISBN: 1525-3198 PMID: 31279549 DOI: 10.3168/jds.2019-16401
The technological conditions of cheese-making affect cheese yield and compound losses in the whey, especially the processes of cutting and cooking. Although significant compositional and functional differences have been reported among animal species, there is a lack of studies on the effects of cheese-making technology on cheese yield and losses for sheep milk. Thus, we examined the cheese-making settings in 8 small rural dairies working with raw sheep milk and their effects on cheese yield and compound losses in whey during the cheese-production season. Actual cheese yield varied in 2 to 3 kg of cheese/100 kg of milk among dairies due to the cheese-making conditions, particularly the duration of cutting and cooking and the final cooking temperature. The combination of the conditions used during cutting and cooking, especially, determined fat losses in the whey. Fat losses were increased with high-speed and short cutting time settings together with high stirring speed and long duration of cooking. Additionally, cheese-makers should adapt the cutting and cooking conditions to the seasonal variations of milk composition, especially during early summer, when fat losses in the whey are higher. Our results suggest that it could be useful to use approximately 10 to 15 min of cutting time and moderate cooking speed and duration. The data reported in this study may assist the improvement of the cheese-making process in small rural dairies using sheep milk, where facilities are limited and the role of the cheese-maker is crucial.