Redescription and molecular analysis of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) johnii Yamaguti, 1939 (Acanthocephala, Neoechinorhynchidae) from the Pacific Ocean off Vietnam
Amin, O.M.; Chaudhary, A.; Heckmann, R.; Ha, N.V.; Singh, H.S.
Parasite 26: 43
ISSN/ISBN: 1776-1042 PMID: 31335314 DOI: 10.1051/parasite/2019041
Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) johnii Yamaguti, 1939 is redescribed from Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Polynemidae), Johnius carouna (Sciaenidae), Johnius sp., and Otolithes ruber (Sciaenidae) along the north and south coasts of Vietnam. Our description completes missing and inadequate information in the original descriptions and line drawings from Johnius goma in Japan and from Pseudosciaena diacanthus in the Indian Ocean. We add new information documented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photomicroscopy, and explore the wide morphological diversity attributed to host species. The redescription includes: worms cylindrical with round proboscis with prominent apical organ, and large anterior hooks distant from small middle and posterior hooks; neck longer than the proboscis, nucleated lemnisci subequal, and receptacle with large basal triangulate cephalic ganglion and attached para-receptacle structure (PRS); male reproductive system in posterior half of trunk; adult females with introvert genital vestibule; and eggs spherical or rectangular. Gallium cuts and X-ray scans of hooks show high concentrations of sulfur on edge layer aiding in forming hardened calcium phosphate apatite of that layer with calcium and phosphorus in higher concentration in central part of hook. Molecular results consistently yielded a strongly supported distinct clade for the Neoechinorhynchus species from Vietnam for both 18S gene and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of ribosomal RNA. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that N. johnii occupies a separate position in the trees, probably indicating an Asian origin of this species.