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Hypotensive Snake Venom Components-A Mini-Review

Hypotensive Snake Venom Components-A Mini-Review

Molecules 24(15)

ISSN/ISBN: 1420-3049

PMID: 31370142

DOI: 10.3390/molecules24152778

Hypertension is considered a major public health issue due to its high prevalence and subsequent risk of cardiovascular and kidney diseases. Thus, the search for new antihypertensive compounds remains of great interest. Snake venoms provide an abundant source of lead molecules that affect the cardiovascular system, which makes them prominent from a pharmaceutical perspective. Such snake venom components include bradykinin potentiating peptides (proline-rich oligopeptides), natriuretic peptides, phospholipases A2, serine-proteases and vascular endothelial growth factors. Some heparin binding hypotensive factors, three-finger toxins and 5' nucleotidases can also exert blood pressure lowering activity. Great advances have been made during the last decade regarding the understanding of the mechanism of action of these hypotensive proteins. Bradykinin potentiating peptides exert their action primarily by inhibiting the angiotensin-converting enzyme and increasing the effect of endogenous bradykinin. Snake venom phospholipases A2 are capable of reducing blood pressure through the production of arachidonic acid, a precursor of cyclooxygenase metabolites (prostaglandins or prostacyclin). Other snake venom proteins mimic the effects of endogenous kallikrein, natriuretic peptides or vascular endothelial growth factors. The aim of this work was to review the current state of knowledge regarding snake venom components with potential antihypertensive activity and their mechanisms of action.

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Accession: 069205303

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