Using a general theory of implementation to plan the introduction of delirium prevention for older people in hospital
Grealish, L.; Chaboyer, W.; Mudge, A.; Simpson, T.; Cahill, M.; Todd, J-Anne.; Ownsworth, T.; Krug, M.; Teodorczuk, A.; Marshall, A.P.
Journal of nursing management 27(8): 1631-1639
To develop an implementation plan for delirium prevention. The use of non-pharmacological interventions to prevent hospital-acquired delirium is well established but their implementation has been notoriously difficult to achieve. Systematic analysis of context as part of implementation planning is critical. Ethnographic study was conducted in a 24-bed general medical ward. Eleven patients and family members and 15 health service staff participated through observations, individual interviews and document review. Inductive analysis was used to generate themes that described enablers and barriers. Enablers included a ward culture that embraced safety and placing the person at the centre of care. Barriers were in tension with the enablers and included limited staff knowledge, specialist forms exclusive to the nursing discipline, inflexible ward routines and frequent disruptions. In addition to standard implementation strategies such as individual education and leadership, implementing delirium prevention requires consideration of team practices, review of policy document design and identification of outcomes data than can support collaborative reflexive practice. The use of a theory-informed ethnographic approach exposed tensions that may be otherwise invisible. Understanding the tensions increases the likelihood of implementation success. Using a systematic assessment approach can create a comprehensive implementation plan.