Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculation and soil zinc fertilisation affect the productivity and the bioavailability of zinc and iron in durum wheat
Tran, B.T.T.; Cavagnaro, T.R.; Watts-Williams, S.J.
Mycorrhiza 29(5): 445-457
There is a growing recognition of the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in food security, specifically the potential for AMF to enhance the yield and mineral nutrition-including phosphorus, zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe)-of food crops. However, the bioavailability of Zn and Fe for humans in the grain of cereal crops can be overestimated by failing to consider the abundance of phytic acid (PA). This is because PA can chelate the micronutrients, making them difficult to absorb. In order to understand the effect of an AM fungus and soil Zn concentration on the productivity and nutritional quality of food parts, this study examined the growth and nutritional responses of durum wheat, with and without inoculation with Rhizophagus irregularis, at five soil Zn concentrations. Growth and nutrient responses of the plants to soil Zn amendment was stronger than responses to AMF. However, the protective effect of AMF under soil Zn toxicity conditions was observed as reduced Zn concentration in the mycorrhizal durum wheat grain at Zn50. Here, AMF inoculation increased the concentration of PA in durum wheat grain but had no effect on the concentration of Zn and Fe; this consequently reduced the predicted bioavailability of grain Zn and Fe, which could lead to a decrease in nutritional quality of the grain. This research suggests that in soil with low (available) phosphorus and Zn concentrations, AMF may reduce the food quality of durum wheat because of an increase in PA concentration, and thus, a decrease in the bioavailability of Zn and Fe.