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Retrospective study, full-length genome characterization and evaluation of viral infectivity and pathogenicity of chimeric porcine deltacoronavirus detected in Vietnam



Retrospective study, full-length genome characterization and evaluation of viral infectivity and pathogenicity of chimeric porcine deltacoronavirus detected in Vietnam



Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 2019



Increased evidence of porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) causing diarrhoea in pigs has been reported in several countries worldwide. The virus has currently evolved into three separated groups including US, China and Southeast Asia (SEA) groups. In Vietnam, PDCoV was first reported in 2015. Based on phylogenetic analyses of spike, membrane and nucleocapsid genes, it is suggested that Vietnam PDCoV is chimeric virus. In the present study, we retrospectively investigated the presence of PDCoV in Vietnam and the full-length genomes of six PDCoV isolates identified in 2014-2016 were further characterized. The results demonstrated that Vietnam PDCoV was first detected as early as 2014. All six Vietnam PDCoV are in the SEA group and further divided into two separated subgroups including SEA-1 and SEA-2. Vietnam PDCoV in SEA-2 was closely related to Thai and Lao PDCoV. Recombination analysis demonstrated that three isolates in SEA-1 were a chimeric virus of which P12_14_VN_0814, the first Vietnam isolate, and US PDCoV isolates were major and minor parents, respectively. The recombination was further evaluated by phylogenetic construction based on 3 recombinant fragments. The first and third fragments, closely related to P12_14_VN_0814, were associated with ORF1a/1b and N genes, respectively. The second fragment, associated with S, E, and M genes, was closely related to US PDCoV isolates. High antigenic and hydrophobic variations were detected in S1 protein. Three-day-old pigs challenged with the chimeric virus displayed clinical diseases and villus atrophy. In conclusion, Vietnam PDCoV is genetically diverse influenced by an external introduction from neighbouring countries. The chimeric Vietnam PDCoV can induce a disease similar to Thai PDCoV.

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Accession: 069293429

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PMID: 31469947


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