Single-step genome-wide association for longitudinal traits of Canadian Ayrshire, Holstein, and Jersey dairy cattle
Oliveira, H.R.; Lourenco, D.A.L.; Masuda, Y.; Misztal, I.; Tsuruta, S.; Jamrozik, J.; Brito, L.F.; Silva, F.F.; Cant, J.P.; Schenkel, F.S.
Journal of Dairy Science 102(11): 9995-10011
Estimating single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects over time is essential to identify and validate candidate genes (or quantitative trait loci) associated with time-dependent variation of economically important traits and to better understand the underlying mechanisms of lactation biology. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to estimate time-dependent effects of SNP and identifying candidate genes associated with milk (MY), fat (FY), and protein (PY) yields, and somatic cell score (SCS) in the first 3 lactations of Canadian Ayrshire, Holstein, and Jersey breeds, as well as suggest their potential pattern of phenotypic effect over time. Random regression coefficients for the additive direct genetic effect were estimated for each animal using single-step genomic BLUP, based on 2 random regression models: one considering MY, FY, and PY in the first 3 lactations and the other considering SCS in the first 3 lactations. Thereafter, SNP solutions were obtained for random regression coefficients, which were used to estimate the SNP effects over time (from 5 to 305 d in lactation). The top 1% of SNP that showed a high magnitude of SNP effect in at least 1 d in lactation were selected as relevant SNP for further analyses of candidate genes, and clustered according to the trajectory of their SNP effects over time. The majority of SNP selected for MY, FY, and PY increased the magnitude of their effects over time, for all breeds. In contrast, for SCS, most selected SNP decreased the magnitude of their effects over time, especially for the Holstein and Jersey breeds. In general, we identified a different set of candidate genes for each breed, and similar genes were found across different lactations for the same trait in the same breed. For some of the candidate genes, the suggested pattern of phenotypic effect changed among lactations. Among the lactations, candidate genes (and their suggested phenotypic effect over time) identified for the second and third lactations were more similar to each other than for the first lactation. Well-known candidate genes with major effects on milk production traits presented different suggested patterns of phenotypic effect across breeds, traits, and lactations in which they were identified. The candidate genes identified in this study can be used as target genes in studies of gene expression.