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G-protein-coupled receptor 40 agonist GW9508 potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through activation of protein kinase Cα and ε in INS-1 cells

Hashimoto, T.; Mogami, H.; Tsuriya, D.; Morita, H.; Sasaki, S.; Kumada, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Urano, T.; Oki, Y.; Suda, T.

Plos one 14(9): E0222179

2019


ISSN/ISBN: 1932-6203
PMID: 31498851
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222179
Accession: 069319211

The mechanism by which G-protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) signaling amplifies glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is unknown. We examined whether a GPR40 agonist, GW9508, could stimulate conventional and novel isoforms of PKC at two glucose concentrations (3 mM and 20 mM) in INS-1D cells. Using epifluorescence microscopy, we monitored relative changes in the cytosolic fluorescence intensity of Fura2 as a marker of change in intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) and relative increases in green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS-GFP) as a marker of PKC activation in response to GW9508 at 3 mM and 20 mM glucose. To assess the activation of the two PKC isoforms, relative increases in membrane fluorescence intensity of PKCα-GFP and PKCε-GFP were measured by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Specific inhibitors of each PKC isotype were constructed and synthesized as peptide fusions with the third α-helix of the homeodomain of Antennapedia. At 3 mM glucose, GW9508 induced sustained MARCKS-GFP translocation to the cytosol, irrespective of changes in [Ca2+]i. At 20 mM glucose, GW9508 induced sustained MARCKS-GFP translocation but also transient translocation that followed sharp increases in [Ca2+]i. Although PKCα translocation was rarely observed, PKCε translocation to the plasma membrane was sustained by GW9508 at 3 mM glucose. At 20 mM glucose, GW9508 induced transient translocation of PKCα and sustained translocation as well as transient translocation of PKCε. While the inhibitors (75 μM) of each PKC isotype reduced GW9508-potentiated, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in INS-1D cells, the PKCε inhibitor had a more potent effect. GW9508 activated PKCε but not PKCα at a substimulatory concentration of glucose. Both PKC isotypes were activated at a stimulatory concentration of glucose and contributed to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in insulin-producing cells.

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