Analysis of Fungi on Coix (Coix lacryma-jobi) Seed and the Effect of its Aqueous Extract on the Growth of Aspergillus flavus

Luo, X.; Li, H.; Jiang, D.; Meng, J.; Zhang, F.; Xu, Q.; Chen, X.; Liu, C.; Yang, Y.

Journal of Food Protection 82(10): 1775-1782

2019


ISSN/ISBN: 1944-9097
PMID: 31545107
DOI: 10.4315/0362-028x.jfp-19-019
Accession: 069359707

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Abstract
Coix (Coix lacryma-jobi) seeds are susceptible to fungal infections, making their surface fungi complex and diverse. Some fungi can produce mycotoxins under suitable conditions, and fungal growth is closely related to the production of mycotoxins. In this study, the surface fungi of coix seed were identified by Illumina HiSeq high-throughput sequencing. Simultaneously, the fungi cultured by the plate method were identified by microscopy and DNA barcoding; finally, the species of fungi were identified accurately and reliably by combining three methods. The aqueous extract of coix seed was cocultured with Aspergillus flavus spores, and the relationship between the aqueous extract and the growth of A. flavus was studied with the dry weight of mycelium as an indicator. The results showed that there were 89 genera and 96 species of fungi on coix seed, which were mainly distributed in Ascomycota (81.48%) and Basidiomycota (4.08%), and Xeromyces (8.50%), Gibberella (7.25%), and Aspergillus (4.74%) were the predominant genera. Four fungi were isolated from coix seed by plate culture and identified as Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, Aspergillus oryzae, and Rhizopus oryzae by microscopy and DNA barcoding. The aqueous extract of coix seed at low concentrations has a promoting effect on the growth of A. flavus. When the concentration is 3.125%, the promotion effect is the most pronounced, and the promotion rate is 29.17%. These results reveal the diversity of fungi on the coix seed, which can provide a reference for the prevention and control of harmful fungi on coix seed.