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Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Antigen 4 (CTLA-4)- and Programmed Death 1 (PD-1)-Mediated Regulation of Monofunctional and Dual Functional CD4 + and CD8 + T-Cell Responses in a Chronic Helminth Infection


Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Antigen 4 (CTLA-4)- and Programmed Death 1 (PD-1)-Mediated Regulation of Monofunctional and Dual Functional CD4 + and CD8 + T-Cell Responses in a Chronic Helminth Infection



Infection and Immunity 87(12)



ISSN/ISBN: 0019-9567

PMID: 31570560

DOI: 10.1128/iai.00469-19

Chronic helminth infections are known to be associated with the modulation of antigen-specific T-cell responses. Strongyloides stercoralis infection is characterized by the downmodulation of antigen-specific Th1 and Th17 responses and the upregulation of Th2 and Th9 responses. Immune homeostasis is partially maintained by negative regulators of T-cell activation, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1), which dampen effector responses during chronic infections. However, their roles in S. stercoralis infection are yet to be defined. Therefore, we sought to determine the role of CTLA-4 and PD-1 in regulating CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses and examined the frequencies of monofunctional and dual functional Th1/T cytotoxic type 1 (Tc1), Th17/Tc17, Th2/Tc2, and Th9/Tc9 cells in S. stercoralis infection in 15 infected individuals stimulated with parasite antigen following CTLA-4 or PD-1 blockade. Our data reveal that CTLA-4 or PD-1 blockade results in significantly enhanced frequencies of monofunctional and dual functional Th1/Tc1 and Th17/Tc17 cells and, in contrast, diminishes the frequencies of monofunctional and dual functional Th2/Tc2 and Th9/Tc9 cells with parasite antigen stimulation in whole-blood cultures. Thus, we demonstrate that CTLA-4 and PD-1 limit the induction of particular T-cell subsets in S. stercoralis infection, which suggests the importance of CTLA-4 and PD-1 in immune modulation in a chronic helminth infection.

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