Chlormequat chloride promotes rat embryonic growth and GH-IGF-1 axis
Xiagedeer, B.; Kang, C.; Hou, X.; Hu, H.; Xiao, Q.; Hao, W.
Toxicology 429: 152326
Chlormequat chloride, a plant growth regulator, is widely applied in agriculture because it can promote sturdier growth of the crops. In this research, we found that rat embryo growth on GD11 was inhibited in vitro at 50 μg/ml but promoted in vivo at 75 mg/kg.bw by maternal oral exposure. Therefore, the concentrations of chlormequat chloride in the sera of the pregnant rats on gestation day (GD)11 were determined by a high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) test to be 1.94 ± 0.023 μg/ml, 3.84 ± 0.080 μg/ml, and 7.08 ± 0.11 μg/ml, respectively, when the pregnant rats were orally exposed to chlormequat chloride at 75, 137.5, and 200 mg/kg.bw. Hence, we performed WEC tests again and confirmed that the rat embryo growth in vitro was promoted by chlormequat chloride at 5 μg/mL. The embryonic growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels were increased by chlormequat chloride both in vitro and in vivo compared with the control ones. We concluded that chlormequat chloride could elevate GH and IGF-1 levels in embryos and promote embryonic growth both in vitro and in vivo.