Mast cell activation in the context of elevated basal serum tryptase: genetics and presentations
Khoury, P.; Lyons, J.J.
Current Allergy and Asthma Reports 19(12): 55
To describe inherited and acquired genetic variants and clinical entities associated with increased basal serum tryptase (BST), distinguish these levels from those which acutely rise due to mast cell activation, and finally to characterize the association between chronically elevated basal serum tryptase and episodic mast cell activation. Hereditary alpha-tryptasemia is a commonly inherited genetic cause for basally elevated serum tryptase and explains elevated BST in many individuals who do not have evidence of clonal myeloid or mast cell disease. When clonal myeloid disease is present, BST may be elevated and can be a biomarker of a number of disparate disorders of the myeloid compartment. Elevated BST is most commonly caused by hereditary alpha tryptasemia but may also be indicative of clonal myeloid disease. Clinical reports suggest that elevated BST is associated with increased risk for more severe systemic allergic reactions to a number of eliciting agents and exposures. Additional studies are needed to determine the role that inherited or acquired genetic variants associated with elevated BST and clonal or non-clonal myeloid diseases may play in these reactions.