Goat cheese yield and recovery of fat, protein, and total solids in curd are affected by milk coagulation properties
Vacca, G.M.; Stocco, G.; Dettori, M.L.; Bittante, G.; Pazzola, M.
Journal of Dairy Science 103(2): 1352-1365
ISSN/ISBN: 0022-0302 PMID: 31837798 DOI: 10.3168/jds.2019-16424
The aims of the present research were to quantify the effects of each coagulation trait, traditional milk coagulation properties [MCP: rennet coagulation time (RCT), curd-firming time (k20), and curd firmness at 30 min (a30)], and modeled curd-firming over time (CFt) parameters [estimated rennet coagulation time (RCTeq), curd-firming instant rate constant (kCF), and potential curd firmness (CFP)] directly on the following: (1) recovery of 3 milk components in the curd (%REC), (2) 3 measures of cheese yield (%CY), and (3) 3 daily cheese yield traits (dCY) from goat milk. Cheese-making traits were analyzed using 2 mixed different models, the first to test MCP and the second to test CFt parameters. Pearson correlations were also calculated. Significant and favorable relationships (negative for time intervals and positive for CF measures) were found between the traditional MCP and the CFt parameters and %REC and %CY traits. The effects of milk fat and protein contents were particularly important on all cheese-making traits, with the only exception being the effect of fat content on water retention in cheese (%CYWATER). We found an optimum value of milk k20, associated with the highest recovery of components and cheese yield in solids (%CYSOLIDS). In addition, a lower level of curd water retention and an increased fresh curd yield (%CYCURD) were associated with greater recovery of fat. The collection of all available information during the process of milk coagulation and curd-firming allowed us to discover the effect of RCTeq on %REC traits and %CYSOLIDS, which had not previously been revealed for traditional RCT. Moreover, higher kCF values were associated with increased %CYCURD and %CYSOLIDS. Given that CFt parameters showed a high level of independence from one another, these can also be easily used and characterized in future applications at the industry level. Information provided by traditional and modeled coagulation properties could efficiently support the goat dairy industry and lay the foundations for a quality payment scheme for goat milk.