Roles of Programmed Cell Death-1/Programmed Cell Death-ligand 1 and Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated Protein 4 Signaling Pathways in Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma
Lin, X.Zhi.; Chen, F.Jiang.; Guo, Y.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae 41(6): 857-865
ISSN/ISBN: 1000-503X PMID: 31907140 Accession: 069683859
Bladder urothelial carcinoma(BUC)is a common malignant tumor in the urinary system.Pt-based chemotherapy has long been a standard therapeutic method for resectable or metastatic BUC,but with poor outcomes.Immune checkpoint inhibitors specific to programmed death 1(PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1(PD-L1)and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4(CTLA-4)pathways have shown significant antitumor activities,safety,and enduring reactivity in clinical trials,thus creating a new epoch for the treatment of advanced-stage BUC.This article reviews the relationships of BUC with PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 pathways,as demonstrated in clinical trials.In particular,the authors elucidate the clinical studies on the application of immune checkpoint inhibitors in different BUC stages and their optimal combining strategies,with an attempt to improve the clinical use of immune inhibitors for BUC treatment.