Seroprevalence of Bordetella pertussis antibodies and anti-pertussis antibody response after a single dose of reduced-antigen combined diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) in pregnant Thai women
Sompagdee, N.; Anuwutnavin, S.; Phongsamart, W.; Senawong, S.; Umrod, P.; Robkhonburi, A.
Vaccine 38(12): 2725-2733
ISSN/ISBN: 1873-2518 PMID: 32070680 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.01.074
Maternal immunization with tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) has recently been implemented to prevent infant pertussis. Tdap is still not routinely recommended in Thailand, and there are limited data to support or challenge this strategy. The primary aim was to determine the seroprevalence of anti-pertussis toxin antibodies (anti-PT IgG) among pregnant Thai women. The secondary aims were to evaluate antibodies response after Tdap vaccination between seronegative and seropositive mothers and to compare the different antibody titers at delivery among seropositive mothers who received Tdap to those who received tetanus-diphtheria vaccine (Td). This randomized clinical trial was conducted during April 2018 to April 2019 at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. A total of 129 pregnant women were included. Paired blood samples for anti-PT IgG levels were obtained during the first antenatal visit and at delivery. A baseline cut-off value of <5 IU/ml indicated seronegativity. There were 29 exclusions from the original 129 enrollment. All seronegative participants (n = 69) received Tdap, while the seropositive group were randomized 1:1 to receive either Tdap (n = 18) or Td (n = 13) during 27-36 weeks' gestation. The antibody levels from both sera were compared between groups. The seroprevalence of maternal anti-PT IgG was 33.3% (43/129). There was no significant difference in the increment of antibody levels after Tdap vaccination between the seronegative and seropositive groups (30.2 vs. 42 IU/ml; p = 0.183). Among seropositive groups, all Tdap recipients had increased antibody titers at delivery, while all Td recipients showed waning of immunity throughout gestation. (42 IU/ml vs. -7.4 IU/ml; p < 0.001). Most pregnant Thai women have seronegative against pertussis. Most seropositive mothers had initial low antibody titers and their immunity significantly decreased before delivery. Our findings highlight the need for universal pertussis immunization in pregnancy regardless of individual baseline immunity.