Section 70
Chapter 69,869

Is Isoeugenol a Prehapten? Characterization of a Thiol-Reactive Oxidative Byproduct of Isoeugenol and Potential Implications for Skin Sensitization

Ahn, J.; Avonto, C.; Chittiboyina, A.G.; Khan, I.A.

Chemical Research in Toxicology 33(4): 948-954


ISSN/ISBN: 1520-5010
PMID: 32119530
DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.9b00501
Accession: 069868343

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Isoeugenol is widely used by the cosmetic and fragrance industries, but it also represents a known cause of skin sensitization adverse effects. Although devoid of a structural alert, isoeugenol has been classified as prehapten in virtue of the presence of a pre-Michael acceptor domain. Isoeugenol oxidation could theoretically lead to the generation of reactive toxic quinones, and photoinduced oxidative degradation of isoeugenol was reported to generate strongly thiol reactive byproducts. Nonetheless, the isoeugenol degradation product responsible for increased reactivity was found to be elusive. In the present study, an aged isoeugenol sample was subjected to reactivity-guided experiments to trap elusive thiol reactive species with a fluorescent nucleophile, viz. dansyl cysteamine (DCYA). The results herein presented demonstrate that photo-oxidation of isoeugenol led to the formation of a dimeric 7,4'-oxyneolignan with strong chemical reactivity, capable of nucleophilic substitution with thiols. The results were confirmed by isolation, structural characterization, and further NMR reactivity studies. Isoeugenol is already well-known as moderately reactive in thiol depletion assays, and was herein demonstrated to be capable of converting to more potent electrophilic species upon degradation, thus acting as a prehapten. The application of the reactivity-guided strategy described herein was shown to serve as an effective tool to investigate elusive skin sensitizers.

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