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An Insight into Saponins from Quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd): A Review


An Insight into Saponins from Quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd): A Review



Molecules 25(5)



ISSN/ISBN: 1420-3049

PMID: 32120971

DOI: 10.3390/molecules25051059

Saponins are an important group found in Chenopodium quinoa. They represent an obstacle for the use of quinoa as food for humans and animal feeds because of their bitter taste and toxic effects, which necessitates their elimination. Several saponins elimination methods have been examined to leach the saponins from the quinoa seeds; the wet technique remains the most used at both laboratory and industrial levels. Dry methods (heat treatment, extrusion, roasting, or mechanical abrasion) and genetic methods have also been evaluated. The extraction of quinoa saponins can be carried out by several methods; conventional technologies such as maceration and Soxhlet are the most utilized methods. However, recent research has focused on technologies to improve the efficiency of extraction. At least 40 saponin structures from quinoa have been isolated in the past 30 years, the derived molecular entities essentially being phytolaccagenic, oleanolic and serjanic acids, hederagenin, 3β,23,30 trihydroxy olean-12-en-28-oic acid, 3β-hydroxy-27-oxo-olean-12en-28-oic acid, and 3β,23,30 trihydroxy olean-12-en-28-oic acid. These metabolites exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as molluscicidal, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, hemolytic, and cytotoxic properties.

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Accession: 069869680

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