The effects of 100% wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) juice consumption on cardiometablic biomarkers: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in adults with increased risk for type 2 diabetes
Stote, K.S.; Sweeney, M.I.; Kean, T.; Baer, D.J.; Novotny, J.A.; Shakerley, N.L.; Chandrasekaran, A.; Carrico, P.M.; Melendez, J.A.; Gottschall-Pass, K.T.
Bmc Nutrition 3: 45
Wild blueberries have a high content of polyphenols, but there is limited data evaluating their health benefits in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was to investigate whether consumption of 100% wild blueberry juice improves cardiometabolic biomarkers associated with type 2 diabetes risk. A single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design trial was conducted in which adults (women, n = 19, ages 39-64 y) at risk for type 2 diabetes consumed 240 mL of wild blueberry juice or a placebo beverage as part of their free-living diet for 7 days. Blood was collected to determine various biomarkers such as fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin, surrogate markers of insulin sensitivity, triglycerides, inflammation (interleukin-6, interleukin-10, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, serum amyloid A), adhesion molecules (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1), oxidative stress (LDL-oxidation, total 8-isoprostanes), and nitric oxide. Endothelial function and blood pressure were also assessed. Wild blueberry juice consumption for 7 days produced no significant changes in glucose, insulin, insulin sensitivity, triglycerides, inflammatory markers, adhesion molecules, oxidative stress, endothelial function or blood pressure. However, wild blueberry juice consumption showed a trend for lowering systolic blood pressure: 120.8 ± 2.2 mmHg in the placebo group vs 116.0 ± 2.2 mmHg in the blueberry juice group (P = 0.088). Serum concentrations of nitrates and nitrites, an index of nitric oxide production, increased from 2.9 ± 0.4 μM after placebo drink to 4.1 ± 0.4 μM after drinking wild blueberry juice (P = 0.039). Short-term consumption of wild blueberry juice may promote cardioprotective effects, by improving systolic blood pressure, possibly through nitric oxide production, in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes. This outcome warrants longer-term human studies of blueberries, including defined amounts of either the whole fruit or juice, to clarify whether polyphenol-rich foods can be efficacious for improving cardiometabolic biomarkers in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes. NCT02139878, clinicaltrials.gov; date of registration: May 4, 2014.