The defective effect of starch branching enzyme IIb from weak to strong induces the formation of biphasic starch granules in amylose-extender maize endosperm

He, W.; Liu, X.; Lin, L.; Xu, A.; Hao, D.; Wei, C.

Plant Molecular Biology 103(3): 355-371


ISSN/ISBN: 1573-5028
PMID: 32193789
DOI: 10.1007/s11103-020-00998-w
Accession: 069934182

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Biphasic starch granules in maize ae mutant underwent the weak to strong SBEIIb-defective effect during endosperm development, leading to no birefringence in their exterior due to extended long branch-chains of amylopectin. Biphasic starch granules are usually detected regionally in cereal endosperm lacking starch branching enzyme (SBE). However, their molecular structure, formation mechanism, and regional distribution are unclear. In this research, biphasic starch granules were observed in the inner region of crown endosperm of maize ae mutant, and had poorly oriented structure with comb-like profiles in their exterior. The inner endosperm (IE) rich in biphasic starch granules and outer endosperm (OE) without biphasic starch granules were investigated. The starch had lower amylose content and higher proportion of long branch-chains of amylopectin in IE than in OE, and the exterior of biphasic starch granules had less amylose and more long branch-chains of amylopectin than the interior. Compared with OE, the expression pattern of starch synthesis related enzymes changed significantly in IE. The granule-bound starch synthase I activity within biphasic starch granules decreased slightly. The IE experienced more severe hypoxic stress than OE, and the up-regulated anaerobic respiration pathway indicated an increase in carbon consumption. The starch in IE underwent the SBEIIb-defective effect from weak to strong due to the lack of sufficient carbon inflow, leading to the formation of biphasic starch granules and their regional distribution in endosperm. The results provided information for understanding the biphasic starch granules.