Therapeutic Efficacy of a Mixed Formulation of Conventional and PEGylated Liposomes Containing Meglumine Antimoniate, Combined with Allopurinol, in Dogs Naturally Infected with Leishmania infantum
Dos Santos, C.C.P.; Ramos, G.S.; De Paula, R.C.; Faria, K.F.; Moreira, P.O.L.; Pereira, R.A.; Melo, M.N.; Tafuri, W.L.; Demicheli, C.; Ribeiro, R.R.; Azevedo, E.G.; Do Monte-Neto, R.; Da Silva, S.M.; Frézard, Fédéric.
Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 64(7)
The treatment of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum using meglumine antimoniate (MA) encapsulated in conventional liposomes (LC) in association with allopurinol has been previously reported to promote a marked reduction in the parasite burden in the main infection sites. Here, a new assay in naturally infected dogs was performed using a novel liposome formulation of MA consisting of a mixture of conventional and long-circulating (PEGylated) liposomes (LCP), with expected broader distribution among affected tissues of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Experimental groups of naturally infected dogs were as follows: LCP plus Allop, receiving LCP intravenously as 2 cycles of 6 doses (6.5 mg Sb/kg of body weight/dose) at 4-day intervals plus allopurinol at 30 mg/kg/12 h per os (p.o.) during 130 days (LCP+Allop); LC plus Allop, receiving LC intravenously as 2 cycles of 6 doses (6.5 mg Sb/kg/dose) plus allopurinol during 130 days (LC+Allop); Allop, treated with allopurinol only; and a nontreated control. Parasite loads were evaluated by quantitative PCR in liver, spleen, and bone marrow tissue and by immunohistochemistry in the ear skin, before treatment, just after treatment, and 4 months later. The LCP+Allop and LC+Allop groups, but not the Allop group, showed significant suppression of the parasites in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow 4 months after treatment compared to the pretreatment period or the control group. Only LCP+Allop group showed significantly lower parasite burden in the skin in comparison to the control group. On the basis of clinical staging and parasitological evaluations, the LCP formulation exhibited a more favorable therapeutic profile than the LC one, being therefore promising for the treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis.