Section 71
Chapter 70,015

Therapeutic Efficacy of a Mixed Formulation of Conventional and PEGylated Liposomes Containing Meglumine Antimoniate, Combined with Allopurinol, in Dogs Naturally Infected with Leishmania infantum

Dos Santos, C.C.P.; Ramos, G.S.; De Paula, R.C.; Faria, K.F.; Moreira, P.O.L.; Pereira, R.A.; Melo, M.N.; Tafuri, W.L.; Demicheli, C.; Ribeiro, R.R.; Azevedo, E.G.; Do Monte-Neto, R.; Da Silva, S.M.; Frézard, Fédéric.

Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 64(7)


ISSN/ISBN: 0066-4804
PMID: 32284386
DOI: 10.1128/aac.00234-20
Accession: 070014954

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The treatment of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum using meglumine antimoniate (MA) encapsulated in conventional liposomes (LC) in association with allopurinol has been previously reported to promote a marked reduction in the parasite burden in the main infection sites. Here, a new assay in naturally infected dogs was performed using a novel liposome formulation of MA consisting of a mixture of conventional and long-circulating (PEGylated) liposomes (LCP), with expected broader distribution among affected tissues of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Experimental groups of naturally infected dogs were as follows: LCP plus Allop, receiving LCP intravenously as 2 cycles of 6 doses (6.5 mg Sb/kg of body weight/dose) at 4-day intervals plus allopurinol at 30 mg/kg/12 h per os (p.o.) during 130 days (LCP+Allop); LC plus Allop, receiving LC intravenously as 2 cycles of 6 doses (6.5 mg Sb/kg/dose) plus allopurinol during 130 days (LC+Allop); Allop, treated with allopurinol only; and a nontreated control. Parasite loads were evaluated by quantitative PCR in liver, spleen, and bone marrow tissue and by immunohistochemistry in the ear skin, before treatment, just after treatment, and 4 months later. The LCP+Allop and LC+Allop groups, but not the Allop group, showed significant suppression of the parasites in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow 4 months after treatment compared to the pretreatment period or the control group. Only LCP+Allop group showed significantly lower parasite burden in the skin in comparison to the control group. On the basis of clinical staging and parasitological evaluations, the LCP formulation exhibited a more favorable therapeutic profile than the LC one, being therefore promising for the treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

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