Current Progress on Assessing the Prognosis for Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor (NMDAR) Encephalitis
Wang, H.; Xiao, Z.
Biomed Research International 2020: 7506590
ISSN/ISBN: 2314-6133 PMID: 32352007 DOI: 10.1155/2020/7506590
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is the most common antineuronal antibody encephalitis in autoimmune encephalitis found at present. It has complex clinical manifestations such as psychiatric and behavioral abnormalities, seizures, movement disorders, consciousness, and autonomic dysfunction. The relationship between those manifestations and prognosis is unclear. Electroencephalography (EEG) is gradually becoming useful in the evaluation of the prognosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients, while imaging and antibody testing have a limited prognostic value. Starting the patients on adequate treatments (such as immunotherapy) in a timely fashion has a positive impact on their prognosis. Nevertheless, research on the prognosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis remains scarce. Here, we review the current advances of prognosis-related research from the clinical manifestations of the disease and auxiliary examinations such as EEG, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 18F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and antibody measurement. In addition, we also discuss the impact of different treatment options on prognosis. In-depth research on the prognosis of patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis will contribute to a better understanding of this disease, leading to better treatments options and, ultimately, a better prognosis.