Immunotherapy With Programmed Cell Death 1 vs Programmed Cell Death Ligand 1 Inhibitors in Patients With Cancer

Bomze, D.; Azoulay, D.; Meirson, T.

JAMA Oncology 6(7): 1114-1115


ISSN/ISBN: 2374-2437
PMID: 32352499
DOI: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.0628
Accession: 070074292

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Currently, there is no established second-line systemic treatment for biliary tract cancer (BTC). Preclinical data have demonstrated that the presence of tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cells and programmed cell death 1 ligand 1-expressing tumor cells in the tumor microenvironment of Btc supports the rationale of using programmed cell death 1 protein blockade immunotherapy in BTC. To evaluate anticancer activity of nivolumab in patients with advanced refractory BTC. In this single-group, multicenter phase 2 study of nivolumab, 54 patients with histologically confirmed Btc whose disease progressed while undergoing treatment with at least 1 line but no more than 3 lines of systemic therapy were enrolled between October 5, 2016, and December 26, 2018. Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Nivolumab, 240 mg, was delivered intravenously every 2 weeks for 16 weeks, and then 480 mg was delivered intravenously every 4 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxic effects occurred. The primary end point was investigator-assessed objective response rate, and the secondary end points were progression-free survival, overall survival, and incidence of adverse events. A total of 54 patients (27 men and 27 women; median age, 65 years [range, 28-86 years]) enrolled, and 46 (22 men and 24 women; median age, 65 years [range, 28-86 years]) were examined for objective response with radiologic imaging. The investigator-assessed objective response rate was 22% (10 of 46), including 1 unconfirmed partial response, with a disease control rate of 59% (27 of 46). Central independent review found an objective response rate of 11% (5 of 46), including 1 unconfirmed partial response, with a disease control rate of 50% (23 of 46). All patients who responded to treated (hereafter referred to as responders) had mismatch repair protein-proficient tumors. The median duration of investigator-assessed response was not reached, with a median follow-up of 12.4 months. Among the intention-to-treat population, median progression-free survival was 3.68 months (95% CI, 2.30-5.69 months) and median overall survival was 14.24 months (95% CI, 5.98 months to not reached). Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 expression in tumors was associated with prolonged progression-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.10-0.51; P < .001). The most common treatment-related grade 3 or 4 toxic effects were hyponatremia (3 of 54 [6%]) and increased alkaline phosphatase (2 of 54 [4%]). This study found that nivolumab was well tolerated and showed modest efficacy with durable response in patients with refractory BTC. Further studies are warranted to verify the findings and evaluate biomarkers for improved treatment selection for patients. Clinical Trials. gov Identifier: NCT02829918.