Environmental Risk Assessment of Lake Surface Sediments Using Trace Elements: a Case Study, the Wular Lake

Shah, R.A.; Achyuthan, H.; Lone, A.M.; Lone, S.A.; Malik, M.S.

Journal of the Geological Society of India 95(2): 145-151

2020


ISSN/ISBN: 0016-7622
DOI: 10.1007/s12594-020-1403-6
Accession: 070307256

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Abstract
Surface sediments were collected from Wular Lake, located in Bandipora district of Kashmir Valley, Nw Himalaya to investigate the environmental risk assessment using trace element concentrations. The surface sediments of the lake reveal higher concentration of Cl, Cr, Ni, Cu, Co, Pb, Zn and Th. In order to estimate the impact of metal pollution on the sediments, the trace element data was quantified for enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution load index (PLI) and contamination factor (CF). The average values for Igeo reveal moderate to strong contamination of Ni, Cu, while Cr and Co exhibit moderate to strong contamination in the central part of the lake. Ef reveals minor enrichment of Cu, Ni, Cr, Co and Zn in the lake surface sediments. Pli indicate moderate pollution from all the sampling sites. Spatial distribution of the metal in the lake reveals their transport through the sewage from the urbanized areas and the Jhelum river. Since metal pollution in the lake is still at nascent stage, it demands attention of the local authorities and the Lake Conservation Department to take remedial measures for the protection of this freshwater body from further contamination.