Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids in protein-restricted diets modulates the expression levels of amino acid transporters and energy metabolism associated regulators in the adipose tissue of growing pigs
Li, Y.; Wei, H.; Li, F.; Chen, S.; Duan, Y.; Guo, Q.; Liu, Y.; Yin, Y.
Animal Nutrition 2(1): 24-32
ISSN/ISBN: 2405-6383 PMID: 29767034 DOI: 10.1016/j.aninu.2016.01.003
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) supplemented in protein-restricted diets on the growth performance and the expression profile of amino acid transporters and energy metabolism related regulators in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of different regional depots including dorsal subcutaneous adipose (DSA) and abdominal subcutaneous adipose (ASA). A total of 24 crossbred barrows (7.40 +/- 0.70 kg) were randomly divided into 4 groups and were fed the following isocaloric diets for 33 days: 1) a recommended adequate protein diet (AP, 20% CP, as a positive control); 2) a low protein diet (LP, 17% CP); 3) the LP diet supplemented with BCAA (LP + B, 17% CP) to reach the same level of the AP diet group; 4) the LP diet supplemented with 2 times the amount of BCAA (LP + 2B, 17% CP). The daily gain and daily feed intake of the LP diet group were the lowest among all the treatments (P < 0.01). The feed conversion was improved markedly in the group of LP + B compared with the LP diet group (P < 0.05). No significant difference was noted for the serum biochemical parameter concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid and insulin among the groups (P > 0.05). Moreover, BCAA supplementation down-regulated the expression levels of amino acid transporters including L-type amino acid transporter 1 and sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 in DSA, but up-regulated the expression level of Ltype amino acid transporter 4 in ASA (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase a was activated in the DSA of pigs fed LP diet and in the ASA of the pigs fed AP or LP + 2B diets (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression profile of the selected mitochondrial component and mitochondrial biogenesis associated regulators in DSA and ASA also responded differently to dietary BCAA supplementation. These results suggested that the growth performance of growing pigs fed protein restricted diets supplemented with BCAA could catch up to that of the pigs fed AP diets. The results also partly demonstrated that the regulation mechanisms of BCAA are different in the adipose tissues of different depots. Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of KeAi Communications Co., Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).