Bioefficacy of Unitary and Binary Botanical Combinations Against Mexican Bean Weevil, Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
Bayih, T.; Tamiru, A.; Egigu, M.C.
International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 38(3): 205-215
Mexican bean weevil, Zabrotes subfasciatus Boheman, is a significant pest of stored beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that causes considerable loss in the quality and quantity of bean grain in Africa. In the past two to three decades, researchers have attempted to identify botanicals with better insecticidal potential against storage pests. However, there is a lack of information on the potency of botanical combinations, their toxicology, and optimal application rates. This study was conducted to examine the bioefficacy of unitary and binary botanical combinations of Jatropha curcas (L.), Datura stramonium (L.), Chenopodium ambrosioides (L.), Schinus molle (L.), and Azadirachta indica (A. Juss) against Z.subfasciatus at 1% and 2% w/w dosages. The insecticidal activities of the botanicals were measured based on their effect on adult mortality of Z. subfasciatus and progeny reduction, grain weight loss, and weevil perforation index. Among botanical admixtures, binary combinations of C. ambrosioides + D. stramonium, J. curcas + C.ambrosioides, and S. molle + C.ambrosioides were the most potent. They resulted in the highest mortality of Z. subfasciatus, low weevil perforation index or none, and grain weight loss at the most moderate test dosage (1% w/w). Treatment with C. ambrosioides resulted in the highest efficacy when applied individually. We failed to observe any notable difference in toxicity between dosage levels among the binary botanical combinations. However, the effectiveness of unitary formulations improved with the increase in dosage rate. Application of botanicals did not adversely affect bean seed germination. Our study suggests that botanicals in binary mixtures may enhance the potency of constituent components for effective control of Z. subfasciatus.