Effect of heat-moisture treatment of germinated wheat on the quality of Chinese white salted noodles
Liu, C.; Jiang, X.; Wang, J.; Li, L.; Bian, K.; Guan, E.; Zheng, X.
Cereal Chemistry 96(1): 115-128
ISSN/ISBN: 0009-0352 DOI: 10.1002/cche.10115
Background and objectives Germination is an effective way to enhance the nutritional value of cereals. However, noodles from germinated wheat have sticky texture, higher cooking loss, and lower tensile resistance compared to those from non-germinated wheat. Challenges for improving noodle-making quality of germinated wheat are essential in food industry. In this study, germinated wheat grain and thus obtained wheat flour were modified by heat-moisture treatment (HMT) at moisture content of 17%, 21%, 25%, and 29%, respectively. Findings After HMT, enhanced falling number, paste viscosity, crystallinity, gelatinization temperature, enthalpy of starch, and reduced dough stability were observed for both germinated wheat flour and germinated wheat grain samples. These modified indicators of wheat flour were obviously higher than that of wheat grain. It was found that moisture content of around 25% was optimal moisture for these indicators. When using HMT germinated wheat flour (up to 20%), Chinese white salted noodles (CWSN) had better quality (lower cooking loss and higher extensibility) compared with HMT germinated wheat grain as raw material. CWSN made by HMT germinated wheat flour (10% noodle flour was replaced) displayed similar quality when using wheat flour. In addition, its quality was significantly higher than those of germinated wheat flour. Conclusions The modification of germinated wheat flour by HMT is an effective method to improve the CWSN making quality of composite flour of germinated wheat flour and non-germinated wheat flour, as long as the level of replacement of wheat flour with HMT germinated wheat flour does not exceed 10%, which can be attributed to the compound action of HMT on inactivity of alpha-amylase and structural rearrangement of starch molecules.