Determination of the Ecotoxicity of Herbicides Roundup ® Classic Pro and Garlon New in Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments
Tajnaiová, L.; Vurm, R.; Kholomyeva, M.; Kobera, M.; Kočí, Vír.
ISSN/ISBN: 2223-7747 PMID: 32937994 DOI: 10.3390/plants9091203
Herbicides help increase agricultural yields significantly, but they may negatively impact the life of non-target organisms. Modifying the life cycle of primary producers can affect other organisms in the food chain, and consequently in the whole ecosystem. We investigated the effect of common herbicides Roundup(R)Classic Pro (active substance glyphosate) and Garlon New (triclopyr and fluroxypyr) on aquatic organisms duckweedLemna minorand green algaeDesmodesmus subspicatus, and on the enzymatic activity of soil. We also compared the effects of Roundup (R) Classic Pro to that of a metabolite of its active substance, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). The results of an algal growth test showed that AMPA has a 1.5x weaker inhibitory effect on the growth ofD. subspicatusthan the Roundup formula, and the strongest growth inhibition was caused by Garlon New (IC(50)Roundup = 267.3 mu g/L, IC(50)Garlon = 21.0 mu g/L, IC(50)AMPA = 117.8 mg/L). The results of the duckweed growth inhibition test revealed that Roundup and Garlon New caused 100% growth inhibition ofL. minoreven at significantly lower concentrations than the ready-to-use concentration. The total chlorophyll content in the fronds was lowest when Garlon New was used. The highest dehydrogenase activity was observed in soil treated with Garlon New, and the lowest in soil treated with Roundup(R)Classic Pro. The results of this study showed that all three tested substances were ecotoxic to the tested organisms.