Visualizing Meiotic Chromosome Pairing and Segregation in Interspecific Hybrids of Rice by Genomic in situ Hybridization

Liu Mao-Sen; Tseng Shih-Hsuan; Chen Ting-Chu; Chung Mei-Chu

Rice Science 28(1): 69-80

2021


ISSN/ISBN: 1672-6308
DOI: 10.1016/j.rsci.2020.11.008
Accession: 071086207

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Abstract
Meiotic disturbances in F-1 hybrids and their progenies are still major problems in wide hybridization. To investigate the genome affinity reflected in chromosome pairing and segregation, we studied chromosome behaviors during meiosis in two interspecific F-1 hybrids [O. minuta x O. australiensis (Om x Oa, BCE genome) and Oa x O. ridleyi (Or, EHJ genome)] by using both traditional staining methods and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). GISH analysis has been successfully performed on mitotic chromosomes to distinguish different Oryza genomes, but relatively fewer systematic analyses of meiotic chromosomes of interspecific hybrids have been reported. In the hybrids, highly irregular chromosome behaviors through meiosis resulted in producing microspores with unbalanced genome. At diakinesis of these two hybrids, most chromosomes present as univalent, with low frequency as bivalents and occasionally as trivalents. In a pollen mother cell, 2 to 8 bivalents and 0 to 4 trivalents were observed in the hybrid Oa x Or, and 1 to 8 bivalents and 0 to 5 trivalents were observed in the hybrid Om x Oa. GISH results indicated that 51.52% bivalents in Oa x Or and 79.65% bivalents in Om x Oa involved allosyndetic association, which indicates that recombination and introgression should be possible if viable backcrosses can be recovered even from triploid hybrids. In this study, we revealed that the meiotic disturbance due to low affinities between parental genomes is the major reason for the sterility of these two triploid interspecific hybrids. The two hybrids showing vigor in reproductive growth are potential genetic resources in future breeding programs. A better understanding of genomic affinities between these distant Oryza species can facilitate planning an effective breeding program by using wide hybridization, and efficient and routine GISH analysis is helpful to monitor alien introgression in the process.