Section 72
Chapter 71,214

Accumulation and risk assessment of heavy metals employing species sensitivity distributions in Linggi River, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia

Razak, M.R.; Aris, A.Z.; Zakaria, N.A.C.; Wee, S.Y.; Ismail, N.A.H.

Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 211: 111905


ISSN/ISBN: 1090-2414
PMID: 33453636
DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.111905
Accession: 071213823

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The constant increase of heavy metals into the aqueous environment has become a contemporary global issue of concern to government authorities and the public. The study assesses the concentration, distribution, and risk assessment of heavy metals in freshwater from the Linggi River, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Species sensitivity distribution (SSD) was utilised to calculate the cumulative probability distribution of toxicity from heavy metals. The aquatic organism's toxicity data obtained from the ECOTOXicology knowledgebase (ECOTOX) was used to estimate the predictive non-effects concentration (PNEC). The decreasing sequence of hazardous concentration (HC5) was manganese > aluminium > copper > lead > arsenic > cadmium > nickel > zinc > selenium, respectively. The highest heavy metal concentration was iron with a mean value of 45.77 μg L-1, followed by manganese (14.41 μg L-1) and aluminium (11.72 μg L-1). The mean heavy metal pollution index (HPI) value in this study is 11.52, implying low-level heavy metal pollutions in Linggi River. The risk quotient (RQ) approaches were applied to assess the potential risk of heavy metals. The RQ shows a medium risk of aluminium (RQm = 0.1125) and zinc (RQm = 0.1262); a low risk of arsenic (RQm = 0.0122) and manganese (RQm = 0.0687); and a negligible risk of cadmium (RQm = 0.0085), copper (RQm = 0.0054), nickel (RQm = 0.0054), lead (RQm = 0.0016) and selenium (RQm = 0.0012). The output of this study produces comprehensive pollution risk, thus provides insights for the legislators regarding exposure management and mitigation.

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