An assessment of level of heavy metals pollution in the water, sediment and aquatic organisms: a perspective of tackling environmental threats for food security
Pandiyan, J.; Mahboob, S.; Govindarajan, M.; Al-Ghanim, K.A.; Ahmed, Z.; Al-Mulhm, N.; Jagadheesan, R.; Krishnappa, K.
Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 28(2): 1218-1225
ISSN/ISBN: 1319-562X PMID: 33613050 DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.11.072
Pollution is severely threatening the wetland habitats. Heavy metals are one among of the major pollutants in wetland habitats. The cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn), were assessed in the water, sediment, benthic species (polychaetes, mollusc and crustaceans), prawn and fishes. The assessment of heavy metals was done by using double-beam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The Hg, Cr and Co were greater in sediment, Ni and Cd were higher in polychaetes and molluscs respectively. However, the Cu and Pb greater in crabs and the Zinc was greater in fishes. The concentration of metals showed significant differences among the various sources examined (P < 0.05) except Cr (P > 0.05). The inter-correlational analysis among the metals assessed from the various sources showed that the Cr and Pb not correlated among the eight metals examined. However, the Cu and Co were correlated with Hg (r = 0.307) and (r = 0.788) respectively. The nickel was correlated with Hg (r = 0.367), Cu (r = 0.362) and Co (r = 0.432). The Zinc was correlated with the Cd (r = 0.331) and Hg (r = 0.737). However, correlation of metals among the different sources shown that the metals of polychaetes correlated with sediment r = 0.637, the metals of crabs correlated with the sediment and polychaetes r = 0.630 and r = 842 respectively, the metals of molluscs was also correlated with sediment (r = 0.636), polychaetes (r = 0.889) and crabs (r = 0.894). In addition to that the metals of prawns was correlated with the polychaetes (r = 839), crabs (r = 0.628) and molluscs (r = 0.634). The metals of fishes correlated with polychaetes (r = 0.529), crabs (r = 0.710), molluscs (r = 0.493) and prawns (r = 0.593). Indeed the multiple regression model explained that the metals of sediments influence the accumulation of metals in biotic species such as polychaetes, molluscs, crustaceans, prawns and fishes with 84% (F = 21.079; p < 0.001).The order of the heavy metals in the water, sediment and biotic species was Hg > Pb > Ni > Cr > Zn > Co > Cu > Cd. The study found that the level of heavy metals at various sources in the sanctuary is showing considerable warning and the sanctuary is required intensive assessment on various aspects of pollution since the Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary is supporting several species of migratory and endangered shorebirds seasonally.