Section 72
Chapter 71,292

Aortic aneurysm and aortic graft infection related to Mycobacterium bovis after intravesical Bacille Calmette-Guérin therapy-a case series

Buerger, M.; Kapahnke, S.; Omran, S.; Schomaker, M.; Rief, M.; Greiner, A.; Frese, J.P.

Bmc Surgery 21(1): 138


ISSN/ISBN: 1471-2482
PMID: 33731071
DOI: 10.1186/s12893-021-01142-1
Accession: 071291796

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So called "mycotic" aortic aneurysms account for only 0.7 to 1.3% of all aortic aneurysms and are commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella species. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), a live attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, is part of the therapy of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). We report a case series of three patients with a mycobacterial graft infection related to BCG after surgical treatment of a presumed mycotic aortic aneurysm as an extremely rare complication after NMIBC treatment. All three patients developed aortic aneurysm after BCG instillation and subsequent mycobacterial graft infection. Diagnosis requires a high degree of suspicion because of its nonspecific symptoms and imaging. The pathogen is not detected by standard microbiological testing. Treatment includes triple antimycobacterial therapy and radical surgical interventions. Graft preservation may be considered if no anastomosis is involved.

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