Balloon-Assisted Embolization of Wide-Neck Aneurysms Using a Mixture of n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate, Lipiodol, and Ethanol in Swine: a Comparison of Four n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate Concentrations
Hama, M.; Sonomura, T.; Ikoma, A.; Koike, M.; Kamisako, A.; Tanaka, R.; Koyama, T.; Sato, H.; Tanaka, F.; Ueda, S.; Okuhira, R.; Warigaya, K.; Murata, S.; Nakai, M.
Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology 43(10): 1540-1547
ISSN/ISBN: 1432-086X PMID: 32676961 DOI: 10.1007/s00270-020-02567-6
To determine the optimal ratio of n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA)-Lipiodol-ethanol (NLE) mixture for balloon-assisted embolization of wide-neck aneurysms. We created 32 wide-neck aneurysms on both the common carotid arteries and external iliac arteries in eight female swine. Eight aneurysms were randomly assigned to four groups. Under balloon occlusion, the aneurysms were packed using NLE at one of four ratios of NLE: 2:2:1 (NLE221; 40%NBCA); 3:6:1 (NLE361; 30%NBCA); 2:7:1 (NLE271; 20%NBCA); and 1:5:1 (NLE151; 14.3%NBCA). We performed angiography before and after embolization to assess the aneurysms, and we compared adhesion between NLE and the balloon and assessed NLE migration. Three days after embolization, the aneurysms were removed for histopathologic evaluation. Embolization was performed in 27 aneurysms. Adhesion between NLE and the balloon was not observed in any group. NLE migration was found in 0/7 aneurysms in the NLE221 group, 0/6 in the NLE361 group, 5/6 in the NLE271 group, and 7/8 in the NLE151 group. NLE migration was significantly lower in the NLE221 group than in the NLE271 and NLE151 groups (P = 0.0047 and 0.0014, respectively) and was significantly lower in the NLE361 group than in the NLE271 and NLE151 groups (P = 0.0152 and 0.0047, respectively). Media necrosis of the arterial wall close to the aneurysms was observed in all groups. NLE with an NBCA concentration of ≥ 30% is a safe and feasible embolic material for balloon-assisted embolization of wide-neck aneurysms in swine in the short term up to 3 days after embolization.