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Development of a novel phantom using polyethylene glycol for the visualization of restricted diffusion in diffusion kurtosis imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient subtraction method

Khasawneh, A.; Kuroda, M.; Yoshimura, Y.; Sugianto, I.; Bamgbose, B.O.; Hamada, K.; Barham, M.; Tekiki, N.; Konishi, K.; Sugimoto, K.; Ishizaka, H.; Kurozumi, A.; Matsushita, T.; Ohno, S.; Kanazawa, S.; Asaumi, J.

Biomedical Reports 13(6): 52

2020


ISSN/ISBN: 2049-9434
PMID: 33082949
Accession: 071578150

The present study aimed to investigate whether polyethylene glycol (PEG) phantoms have the potential to be used as standard phantoms for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to visualize restricted diffusion in diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), the ADC subtraction method (ASM) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Diffusion-weighted images of 0-120 mM PEG phantoms were captured to create ADC, DKI and ASM images with post-processing. ASM is a recently developed method for restricted diffusion imaging using the readout segmentation of long variable echo-train sequences. As the PEG concentration increases, the ADC value decreases. Conversely, an increase in DKI and ASM values is associated with increasing PEG concentration. Formulae were constructed to represent the association between PEG concentrations and ADC, DKI and ASM values. These formulae can be used to determine the required PEG concentrations to mimic arbitrary ADC, DKI and ASM values of certain diseases, including tumors and infarctions. Validation experiments were conducted using bio-phantoms and clarified that the PEG phantoms cover the range of ADC and DKI values reported in previous clinical research using 3T MRI. PEG phantoms may be useful for future MRI research involving restricted diffusion.

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