Directional seed and pollen dispersal and their separate effects on anisotropy of fine-scale spatial genetic structure among seedlings in a dioecious, wind-pollinated, and wind-dispersed tree species, Cercidiphyllum japonicum
Nakanishi, A.; Goto, S.; Sumiyoshi, C.; Isagi, Y.
Ecology and Evolution 11(12): 7754-7767
Prevailing directions of seed and pollen dispersal may induce anisotropy of the fine-scale spatial genetic structure (FSGS), particularly in wind-dispersed and wind-pollinated species. To examine the separate effects of directional seed and pollen dispersal on FSGS, we conducted a population genetics study for a dioecious, wind-pollinated, and wind-dispersed tree species, Cercidiphyllum japonicum Sieb. et Zucc, based on genotypes at five microsatellite loci of 281 adults of a population distributed over a ca. 80 ha along a stream and 755 current-year seedlings. A neighborhood model approach with exponential-power-von Mises functions indicated shorter seed dispersal (mean = 69.1 m) and much longer pollen dispersal (mean = 870.6 m), effects of dispersal directions on the frequencies of seed and pollen dispersal, and the directions with most frequent seed and pollen dispersal (prevailing directions). Furthermore, the distance of effective seed dispersal within the population was estimated to depend on the dispersal direction and be longest at the direction near the prevailing direction. Therefore, patterns of seed and pollen dispersal may be affected by effective wind directions during the period of respective dispersals. Isotropic FSGS and spatial sibling structure analyses indicated a significant FSGS among the seedlings generated by the limited seed dispersal, but anisotropic analysis for the seedlings indicated that the strength of the FSGS varied with directions between individuals and was weakest at a direction near the directions of the most frequent and longest seed dispersal but far from the prevailing direction of pollen dispersal. These results suggest that frequent and long-distance seed dispersal around the prevailing direction weakens the FSGS around the prevailing direction. Therefore, spatially limited but directional seed dispersal would determine the existence and direction of FSGS among the seedlings.