Forecasting the patterns of COVID-19 and causal impacts of lockdown in top five affected countries using Bayesian Structural time Series Models

Feroze, N.

Chaos Solitons and Fractals 140: 110196

2020


ISSN/ISBN: 0960-0779
PMID: 32834662
DOI: 10.1016/j.chaos.2020.110196
Accession: 071793207

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Abstract
There are numerous studies dealing with analysis for the future patterns of COVID-19 in different countries using conventional time series models. This study aims to provide more flexible analytical framework that decomposes the important components of the time series, incorporates the prior information, and captures the evolving nature of model parameters. We have employed the Bayesian structural time series (BSTS) models to investigate the temporal dynamics of COVID-19 in top five affected countries around the world in the time window March 1, 2020 to June 29, 2020. In addition, we have analyzed the casual impact of lockdown in these countries using intervention analysis under BSTS models. We achieved better levels of accuracy as compared to ARIMA models. The forecasts for the next 30 days suggest that India, Brazil, USA, Russia and UK are expected to have 101.42%, 85.85%, 46.73%, 32.50% and 15.17% increase in number of confirmed cases, respectively. On the other hand, there is a chance of 70.32%, 52.54%, 45.65%, 19.29% and 18.23% growth in the death figures for India, Brazil, Russia, USA and UK, respectively. In addition, USA and UK have made quite sagacious choices for lifting/relaxing the lockdowns. However, the pace of outbreak has significantly increased in Brazil, India and Russia after easing the lockdowns. On the whole, the Indian and Brazilian healthcare system is likely to be seriously overburdened in the next month. Though USA and Russia have managed to cut down the rates of positive cases, but serious efforts will be required to keep these momentums on. On the other hand, UK has been successful in flattening their outbreak trajectories.