Graphene Oxide Theranostic Effect: Conjugation of Photothermal and Photodynamic Therapies Based on an in vivo Demonstration
Romero, M.P.; Buzza, H.H.; Stringasci, M.D.; Estevão, B.M.; Silva, C.C.C.; Pereira-da-Silva, M.A.; Inada, N.M.; Bagnato, V.S.
International Journal of Nanomedicine 16: 1601-1616
Cancer is the second leading cause of death globally and is responsible, where about 1 in 6 deaths in the world. Therefore, there is a need to develop effective antitumor agents that are targeted only to the specific site of the tumor to improve the efficiency of cancer diagnosis and treatment and, consequently, limit the unwanted systemic side effects currently obtained by the use of chemotherapeutic agents. In this context, due to its unique physical and chemical properties of graphene oxide (GO), it has attracted interest in biomedicine for cancer therapy. In this study, we report the in vivo application of nanocomposites based on Graphene Oxide (nc-GO) with surface modified with PEG-folic acid, Rhodamine B and Indocyanine Green. In addition to displaying red fluorescence spectra Rhodamine B as the fluorescent label), in vivo experiments were performed using nc-GO to apply Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) and Photothermal Therapy (PTT) in the treatment of Ehrlich tumors in mice using NIR light (808 nm 1.8 W/cm2). This study based on fluorescence images was performed in the tumor in order to obtain the highest concentration of nc-GO in the tumor as a function of time (time after intraperitoneal injection). The time obtained was used for the efficient treatment of the tumor by PDT/PTT. The current study shows an example of successful using nc-GO nanocomposites as a theranostic nanomedicine to perform simultaneously in vivo fluorescence diagnostic as well as combined PDT-PTT effects for cancer treatments.