Improvements in HOMA indices and pancreatic endocrinal tissues in type 2-diabetic rats by DPP-4 inhibition and antioxidant potential of an ethanol fruit extract of Withania coagulans
Ram, H.; Kumar, P.; Purohit, A.; Kashyap, P.; Kumar, S.; Kumar, S.; Singh, G.; Alqarawi, A.A.; Hashem, A.; Abd-Allah, E.F.; Al-Arjani, A.-B.F.; Singh, B.P.
Nutrition and Metabolism 18(1): 43
ISSN/ISBN: 1743-7075 PMID: 33882957 DOI: 10.1186/s12986-021-00547-2
Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal fruits are used in the therapeutics of several ailments due to possessing of potent phytoconstituents which is also used traditionally for curing the diabetes. The present study was assessing the amelioration potential of the phytochemicals of an ethanol fruit extract of W. coagulans (Stocks) Dunal in the HOMA (Homeostatic model assessment) indices and pancreatic endocrinal tissues by inhibition of DPP-4 and antioxidants activities. The identification of phytoconstituents of the test extract was performed by LCMS. Further, assessments of in-vitro, in-vivo and in-silico were achieved by following standard methods. In-vivo studies were conducted on type-2 diabetic rats. The chosen extract inhibited DPP-4 activity by 63.2% in an in vitro assay as well as significantly inhibit serum DPP-4 levels. Accordingly, the administration of the ethanol fruit extract resulted in a significant (P ≤ 0.001) alterations in the lipid profile, antioxidant levels, and HOMA indices. Moreover, pancreatic endocrinal tissues (islet of Langerhans) appeared to have the restoration of normal histoarchitecture as evidenced by increased cellular mass. Molecular docking (Protein-ligands) of identified phytoconstituents with DPP-4 (target enzyme) shown incredibly low binding energy (Kcal/mol) as required for ideal interactions. ADMET analysis of the pharmacokinetics of the identified phytoconstituents indicated an ideal profile as per Lipinski laws. It can be concluded that the phytoconstituents of an ethanol fruit extract of W. coagulans have the potential to inhibit DPP-4 which result in improved glucose homeostasis and restoration of pancreatic endocrinal tissues in type-2 diabetic rats.