Insights into total estrogenic activity in a sewage-impacted urban stream assessed via ER transcriptional activation assay: Distribution between particulate and dissolved phases
Argolo, A.D.S.; Gomes, G.; Bila, D.M.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 208: 111574
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are exogenous substances that can potentially mimic hormonal substances and cause adverse effects on the endocrine system of living beings. The behavior and fate of these compounds in the environment is directly related to their physical-chemical properties, which indicate great affinity for solid and organic particles and suggest an inherent mechanism of fractionation between dissolved and particulate phases of aqueous matrices. However, few studies have been considering this fact when quantifying these pollutants and their effects through bioassays. In this study, the fractionation of estrogenic substances between dissolved and particulate phases in an urban stream was investigated via estrogenic activity evaluation by the YES assay. Two fractions of suspended solids (< 0.7 µm and between 0.45 and 0.7 µm) and the dissolved phase were considered and two approaches of SPE percolations were applied. Total estradiol equivalent (E2-Eq) values were observed in the 29-65 ng L-1 range, of which 35-62% were associated with the particulate phase. Most of the estrogenicity was associated with particles between 0.45 and 0.7 µm, whereas cytotoxicity was induced by extracts of particles greater than 0.7 µm. Results demonstrated the importance of solid fractions analysis towards the quantification of total estrogenic activity from aqueous environmental matrices and highlights the relevance of controlling fine suspended solids in sewage treatment plant effluents, regarding the control of endocrine disrupters in the environment.