Maternal Nutrition and Inadequate Gestational Weight Gain in Relation to Birth Weight: Results from a Prospective Cohort Study in India
Mishra, K.G.; Bhatia, V.; Nayak, R.
Clinical Nutrition Research 9(3): 213-222
ISSN/ISBN: 2287-3732 PMID: 32789151 Accession: 072098186
Inadequate/excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) can cause adverse pregnancy outcomes and only few studies have described patterns of weight gain in Indian women. Also, studies pertaining to dietary intake throughout gestation are insufficient. This prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate GWG and nutrient intake in all trimesters of pregnancy and investigate the relationship between themselves along with that of birth weight (BW). Our study was carried out in a population-based prospective birth cohort in Odisha, India. The 418 pregnant women were followed till delivery with measurements of maternal weight, weight gain throughout gestation, and BW. Macronutrients were assessed based on a 24-hour dietary recall method in each trimester. Women characterized by under-weight pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) were 16.20%, and a total of 6.45% did not comply with current weight gain recommendations. Particularly, overweight and obese women gained more weight than recommended. In a multivariate analysis GWG correlated significantly with BMI (p = 0.03), total calorie intake (p < 0.001) and fat intake (p < 0.001), while BW of newborns correlated significantly with adequacy of weight gain and fat intake (p < 0.001). Though measures are taken by health workers to record the weight but nutritional counseling is not being provided regularly. A high priority should be given to increase awareness among general population regarding the importance of diet in pregnancy and how to adhere to the balanced diet for optimal growth of child.