Organochlorine pesticide residues in raw milk samples collected from dairy farms and urban areas of Lahore district, Pakistan
Muhammad Arif, A.; Javed, I.; Ayaz, M.; Abdullah, M.; Imran, M.; Shahbaz, M.; Aslam Gondal, T.; Ali, M.; Iqbal, Z.; Iqbal, Z.; Salehi, B.; Sharifi-Rad, J.; Martins, Nália.
Journal of Food Science and Technology 58(1): 129-137
ISSN/ISBN: 0022-1155 PMID: 33505057 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-020-04522-2
The current study was employed to investigate the organochlorine pesticides (OCP) concentrations in milk, as the milk we consume, has residues of these notorious pesticides. The residual concentrations of OCP in milk have numerous harmful effects on health especially the children. Therefore, milk was analyzed using gas chromatography equipped with µECD for seven OCP residues, namely α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, Endosulfan-sulphate, DDE, γ-HCH, Dieldrin, and DDT. Three hundred and sixty raw milk samples were collected from urban areas (10 areas of Lahore N = 300) and Dairy Farms (10 farms in Lahore N = 60) from September 2012 to September 2013. Samples were collected after an interval of 2 months, for 12 months. Mean values of OCPs in milk samples from urban areas were reported as α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, Endosulfan-sulphate, DDE, γ-HCH, and Dieldrin with concentration of 17.44 ± 3.99, 35.74 ± 7.50, 20.28 ± 3.95, 2.51 ± 0.55, 0.93 ± 0.16 and 1.12 ± 0.18 µg kg-1, respectively, while the milk samples from dairy farms with concentration of 26.94 ± 4.63, 59.88 ± 6.76, 32.07 ± 4.51, 4.64 ± 0.48, 1.20 ± 0.17 and 1.93 ± 0.18 µg kg-1, respectively. None of the samples analyzed were found positive for the presence of DDT, just as none of the samples from area milk shops exceeded the Maximum Residual Limits (MRLs). γ-HCH and β-endosulfan were found higher in dairy farm milk samples than the MRLs. Conclusively, these pesticide residues are present in milk available in Lahore in enough quantity (some exceeding the MRLs) to threaten human health, particularly the infant and children.