Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from the southern part of Botswana

Gondo, T.F.; Kamakama, M.; Oatametse, B.; Samu, T.; Bogopa, J.; Keikotlhaile, B.M.

Food Additives and Contaminants. Part B Surveillance 2021: 1-10

2021


ISSN/ISBN: 1939-3229
PMID: 34266362
DOI: 10.1080/19393210.2021.1950845
Accession: 072304760

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Abstract
This study reports a surveillance of multi-pesticide residues of fruits and vegetables sold in the local markets carried out in 2018-2019 in Botswana to access consumer safety. A validated method for analysis of 232 pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables was applied, based on QuEChERS-GC-MS/MS methodology. A total of 83 fruit and vegetable sold in different markets were bought from three different areas of the southern region . Levels of pesticides ranged between 0.0032 ± 0.0009 mg/kg and 70.4 ± 19.4 mg/kg. A total of 78% of the samples contained pesticide residues, whereas only 13% of the samples violated the EU/Codex MRLs. In particular, rape vegetable samples exceeded legislative limits most, followed by cabbage, green pepper and tomato. The most frequently detected compounds were chlopyrifos, chlorfenapyr, tebuconazole, methamidophos and cypermethrin. These results will serve as a foundation for future studies, involving continuous monitoring programmes.