Preparation and efficacy of freeze-dried inactivated vaccine against bovine viral diarrhea virus genotypes 1 and 2, bovine herpes virus type 1.1, bovine parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus
Abd El Fadeel, M.R.; El-Dakhly, A.T.; Allam, A.M.; Farag, T.K.; El-Kholy, A.A.-M.
Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research 9(2): 119-125
Bovine respiratory disease is a worldwide health concern in the feedlot cattle causing morbidity and mortality in young with major economic losses to the producer. Programs of vaccination are integral parts of preventive health programs. We aim to prepare and evaluate lyophilized combined inactivated viruses (bovine viral diarrhea virus [BVDV] genotypes 1 and 2, bovine herpes virus type 1.1 [BoHV-1.1], bovine parainfluenza-3 virus [BPI-3V], and bovine respiratory syncytial virus [BRSV]) vaccine using saponin as a solvent and adjuvant in cattle. Lyophilized Pneumo-5 vaccine was formulated to include the inactivated BVDV genotypes 1 and 2, BoHV-1.1, BPI-3V, and BRSV. The saponin solution was used as an adjuvant and solvent. The prepared vaccines were adjusted to contain 1- and 1.5-mg saponin/dose. It was evaluated for its sterility, safety, and potency in mice and calves. The antibody titers in vaccinated calves were measured by virus neutralization test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The Pneumo-5 vaccine was found to be free from any contaminants and safe in mice. Meanwhile, the vaccine showed safety in calves which inoculated intramuscularly with the double dose of the vaccines. The overall immune response reached its peak in the 2nd-month post-vaccination. The vaccine contained saponin 1.5 mg/dose reached its antibodies peak in the 4th-week post-vaccination. All groups of vaccinated calves with both concentrations of the saponin did not show statistical significance in antibody titers measured by serum neutralization test and/or ELISA. The prepared vaccine, namely Pneumo-5, and adjuvanted with either 1 or 1.5 mg/dose saponin was proved safe and potent for effectual protection of calves against BVDV genotypes 1 and 2, BoHV-1.1, BPI-3V, and BRSV.