Renal Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DWI) for Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) , Intravoxel Incoherent Motion (IVIM) , and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) : Basic Concepts
Jerome, N.P.; Caroli, A.; Ljimani, A.
Methods in Molecular Biology 2216: 187-204
The specialized function of the kidney is reflected in its unique structure, characterized by juxtaposition of disorganized and ordered elements, including renal glomerula, capillaries, and tubules. The key role of the kidney in blood filtration, and changes in filtration rate and blood flow associated with pathological conditions, make it possible to investigate kidney function using the motion of water molecules in renal tissue. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a versatile modality that sensitizes observable signal to water motion, and can inform on the complexity of the tissue microstructure. Several DWI acquisition strategies are available, as are different analysis strategies, and models that attempt to capture not only simple diffusion effects, but also perfusion, compartmentalization, and anisotropy. This chapter introduces the basic concepts of DWI alongside common acquisition schemes and models, and gives an overview of specific DWI applications for animal models of renal disease.This chapter is based upon work from the COST Action PARENCHIMA, a community-driven network funded by the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) program of the European Union, which aims to improve the reproducibility and standardization of renal MRI biomarkers. This introduction chapter is complemented by two separate chapters describing the experimental procedure and data analysis.