Safety and Efficacy of Long-Term Zoledronic Acid in Advanced Breast Cancer with Bone Metastasis in South China
Wang, Q.; Guo, G.; Ruan, Z.; Cao, H.; Guo, Y.; Bai, L.; Jiang, C.; Liu, S.; He, W.; Huang, J.; Rong, Y.; Chen, X.; Xia, L.; Zhang, B.; Peng, R.
Journal of Oncology 2020: 5670601
ISSN/ISBN: 1687-8450 PMID: 33061970 DOI: 10.1155/2020/5670601
This retrospective study aimed to characterize the long-term (>24 months) safety profile of zoledronic acid (ZA). We aimed to investigate whether long-term ZA treatment had greater benefits than short-term treatment in patients from southern China with advanced breast cancer (ABC) with bone metastasis. Patients and Methods. A total of 566 metastatic breast cancer cases were included and divided into two groups according to the duration of ZA treatment. The included patients had at least one lytic bone lesion and had no skeletal-related events (SREs) prior to ZA therapy. The primary endpoint was to analyze the safety and long-term adverse effects, which covered osteonecrosis of jaws (ONJ), renal impairment, and hearing impairment. The second objective was to determine the efficacy of long-term ZA treatment by the incidence of SREs. Fifteen patients were diagnosed with ONJ (2.7%): nine in the short-term group (3.1%) and six in the long-term group (2.2%, P = 0.606). Five cases (0.9%) had renal function impairment: two in the short-term group (0.7%) and four in the long-term group (1.1%, P = 0.676). One patient (0.2%) in the long-term group had hearing impairment after 23 months of ZA treatment (0.4%, P = 0.482). In total, 103 cases in the short-term group (35.2%) and 138 cases in long-term group (50.5%) developed SREs (P < 0.001). The mean annual SRE rate was 0.3 in the short-term group (range, 0-3.1) versus 0.2 in the long-term group (0-1.0, P = 0.269). Subgroup analysis suggested that cases with non-load-bearing bone involvement and those who received systematic anticancer therapy without chemotherapy might benefit from long-term ZA treatment. Cox regression analysis indicated poor performance status, and nonvisceral organ involvement predicted high risk for SRE. The extension of ZA treatment did not increase the long-term adverse events and reduced the annual incidence of SREs beyond 24 months. Although longer treatment of ZA over 24 months appeared to be safe, further prospective investigation is required.