EurekaMag
+ Translate
+ Most Popular
Advantages and disadvantages of bordeaux mixture and of lime-sulphur used on apples in the growing season
Observations on the Umaria marine bed
10 years of hearing conservation in the Royal Air Force
Chocolate crumb - dairy ingredient for milk chocolate
Effect of daily gelatin ingestion on human scalp hair
Comparison of rice bran and maize bran as feeds for growing and fattening pigs
The composition of pampas-grass (Cortaderia argentea.)
The Accraian Series:
The mechanism of the Liebermann-Burchard reaction of sterols and triterpenes and their esters
Cerebrovascular Doppler ultrasound studies (cv-Doppler)
Toria: PT-303 - first national variety
Hair growth promoting activity of tridax procumbens
Productivity of Pekin x Khaki Campbell ducks
A stable cytosolic expression of VH antibody fragment directed against PVY NIa protein in transgenic potato plant confers partial protection against the virus
Solar treatment of wheat loose smut
Swimmers itch in the Lake of Garda
Bactofugation and the Bactotherm process
The effects of prefrontal lobotomy on aggressive behavior in dogs
Visual rating scales for screening whorl-stage corn for resistance to fall armyworm
Breakdown of seamounts at the trench axis, viewed from gravity anomaly
Kooken; pennsylvania's toughest cave
Recovery of new dinosaur and other fossils from the Early Cretaceous Arundel Clay facies (Potomac Group) of central Maryland, U.S.A
Zubor horny (Bison bonasus) v prirodnych podmienkach Slovensku
The extended Widal test in the diagnosis of fevers due to Salmonella infection
Hair of the american mastodon indicates an adaptation to a semi aquatic habitat

Skin penetration and decontamination efficacy following human skin exposure to fentanyl


Skin penetration and decontamination efficacy following human skin exposure to fentanyl



Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with Bibra 67: 104914



ISSN/ISBN: 0887-2333

PMID: 32540164

DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2020.104914

Unintentional exposure to potent synthetic opioids during law enforcement seizures and rescue operations can potentially result in incapacitating effects or life-threatening respiratory depression. The hazard comes mainly from inhalation exposure, however, the skin contact risk should be considered. In the present study, the skin penetration of fentanyl and the efficacy of different decontamination protocols were evaluated by applying two forms of fentanyl on dermatomed human skin mounted in a diffusion cell. Studies were performed on dry skin or skin moistened by water, sweat or hand sanitizer. The free base of fentanyl displayed greater skin penetration ability than the hydrochloride salt and a higher steady state penetration rate of fentanyl in solution compared to powder on dry skin. Sweaty skin increased the penetration rate, both when applied in solution and as powder. The hand sanitizer increased skin penetration of the free base fentanyl but not the hydrochloride salt. Of the evaluated decontamination procedures, only soapy water demonstrated a general efficacy. In conclusion, the skin contact hazard of fentanyl is highly dependent on the exposure conditions and contamination density. The risk for physiological effects of fentanyl is assessed to occur only at very high exposures on sweaty skin. In such events, skin decontamination using soap and water is estimated to be a sufficient decontamination procedure.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 072544982

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

Related references

Comparison of skin decontamination efficacy of commercial decontamination products following exposure to VX on human skin. Chemico-Biological Interactions 273: 82-89, 2017

Efficacy studies of Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion, M291 Skin Decontamination Kit, 0.5% bleach, 1% soapy water, and Skin Exposure Reduction Paste Against Chemical Warfare Agents, part 1: guinea pigs challenged with VX. Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology 30(1): 15-28, 2011

Efficacy studies of Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion, M291 Skin Decontamination Kit, 0.5% bleach, 1% soapy water, and Skin Exposure Reduction Paste Against Chemical Warfare Agents, part 2: guinea pigs challenged with soman. Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology 30(1): 29-37, 2011

Decontamination of rat and human skin experimentally contaminated with 99m Tc, 201 Tl and 131 I radionuclides using "Dermadecon" - a skin decontamination kit: an efficacy study. Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology 37(1): 1-8, 2018

Use of a human skin in vitro model to investigate the influence of 'every-day' clothing and skin surface decontamination on the percutaneous penetration of organophosphates. Toxicology Letters 229(1): 257-264, 2014

In vitro human skin permeation and decontamination of diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) using Dermal Decontamination Gel (DDGel) and Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) at different timepoints. Toxicology Letters 299: 118-123, 2018

In vitro human skin permeation and decontamination of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) using Dermal Decontamination Gel (DDGel) and Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL). Toxicology Letters 291: 86-91, 2018

In vitro human skin permeation and decontamination of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) using Dermal Decontamination Gel (DDGel) and Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL). Toxicology Letters 291: 86-91, 2018

Efficacy of water-based skin decontamination of occupational chemicals using in vitro human skin models: a systematic review. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B Critical Reviews 2021: 1-14, 2021

Investigation of the Efficacy of Transdermal Penetration Enhancers Through the Use of Human Skin and a Skin Mimic Artificial Membrane. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 105(3): 1134-1140, 2016

Decontamination of human and rabbit skin experimentally contaminated with 99mTc radionuclide using the active components of "Shudhika"-a skin decontamination kit. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 27(2): 162-166, 2012

Decontamination efficacy of soapy water and water washing following exposure of toxic chemicals on human skin. Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology 39(2): 134-142, 2020

Liposomes increase skin penetration of entrapped and non-entrapped hydrophilic substances into human skin: A skin penetration and confocal laser scanning microscopy study. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics: Official Journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik E.V 55(3): 271-277, 2003

Percutaneous penetration and absorption of parathion using human and pig skin models in vitro and human skin grafted onto nude mouse skin model in vivo. Journal of Applied Toxicology: Jat 28(5): 645-657, 2008

A custom tailored model to investigate skin penetration in porcine skin and its comparison with human skin. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics: Official Journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik E.V 95(Pt A): 99-109, 2015