Successful Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Using Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents (DAAs) in Adolescents with Kidney Transplantation: a Case Series
Ambarsari, C.G.; Hidayati, E.L.; Hasan, I.; Grace, A.; Oswari, H.
International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease 13: 139-146
ISSN/ISBN: 1178-7058 PMID: 32606888 DOI: 10.2147/ijnrd.s248632
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is common among end-stage renal disease patients undergoing hemodialysis. The standard treatment for HCV infection has been interferon-ribavirin combination prior to renal transplantation. However, compared to direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs), the risk of graft rejection is higher with interferon therapy. Many recent studies have investigated the efficacy and safety of DAAs for treating HCV infection in kidney disease in adults; however, it has not been established in pediatric patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing successful treatment using the DAAs sofosbuvir/daclatasvir in two pediatric kidney transplant recipients who had HCV genotype 1a infection without liver fibrosis. Case 1 describes a 13-year-old Indonesian boy who had undergone hemodialysis since 2014 after being diagnosed with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to bilateral renal hypoplasia. Later, he had HCV infection and was treated with interferon-based therapy with ribavirin prior to living-related renal transplantation (LRRT). The HCV was undetected and his liver function normalized six months after treatment initiation. However, 10 months after treatment initiation, he had HCV virological breakthrough, leading to cessation of interferon therapy. Plans for LRRT were continued and HCV treatment using DAAs was set up to be given post LRRT. Case 2 describes a 14-year-old Indonesian girl who also had hemodialysis prior to LRRT after she was diagnosed with ESRD secondary to nephrotic syndrome. Later, she had HCV infection and was treated with interferon and ribavirin prior to the live-unrelated renal transplantation. HCV infection did not resolve, in addition, she experienced thrombocytopenia-which is a side effect of interferon-resulting in termination of interferon treatment. Both cases were treated with DAAs one year following renal transplantation after reaching stable graft function, leading to achievement of sustained virological response at 24 weeks. Post-transplantation treatment of chronic HCV is preferred in KTRs. The sofosbuvir/daclatasvir regimen as an interferon-free therapy is a safe, effective option for HCV infection in pediatric KTRs, who can tolerate sofosbuvir/daclatasvir well and respond favorably without significant adverse events.