The Case Fatality Rate in COVID-19 Patients with Cardiovascular Disease: Global Health Challenge and Paradigm in the Current Pandemic
Dan, S.; Pant, M.; Upadhyay, S.K.
Current Pharmacology Reports 6(6): 315-324
ISSN/ISBN: 2198-641X PMID: 32953401 DOI: 10.1007/s40495-020-00239-0
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is identified from Wuhan, China, and has spread almost worldwide. Recently, the newly identified SARS-CoV-2 has been confirmed to kill millions of people worldwide and is dangerous to society health, survival, and livelihood. The people with cardiovascular problems are noticed as most common patients of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There is a greater risk of mortality and morbidity in these patients than other patients of COVID-19. In the heart, expressed angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and response effect of hyperactivity with angiotensin II associated to the renin-angiotensin mechanism are key factors of hypertension, atherosclerosis, and congestive heart failure. Mortality rates have been observed about 10.5% cases in patients with cardiovascular disease; however, a mortality rate of 52% was recorded in patients with heart failure, while 12% recovered ultimately. The occupancy of intense injury controlled by troponin elevation was a noteworthy factor in relation to mortality. Among 187 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, about 35% were diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) history and 28% with raised troponin. Troponin elevation was identified more frequently (55%) in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Mortality rate in patients without cardiovascular diseases and normal troponin was 7.6%, normal troponin and cardiovascular disease with 13.3%, augmented troponin and without cardiovascular disease 37.5%, however 69.4% among cardiovascular disease and advanced troponin. The study reflected a significant association of case fatality rate (CFR) to COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular diseases which supposed to be the most common dangerous risk factor and health challenge during the current pandemic situation.