The application of in silico experimental model in the assessment of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin interaction with main SARS-CoV-2 targets: S-, E- and TMPRSS2 proteins, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and papain-like protease (PLpro) -preliminary molecular docking analysis
Marciniec, K.; Beberok, A.; Boryczka, S.ła.; Wrześniok, D.
Pharmacological Reports Pr 73(6): 1765-1780
The new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified at the end of 2019. Despite growing understanding of SARS-CoV-2 in virology as well as many molecular studies, except remdesivir, no specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug has been officially approved. In the present study molecular docking technique was applied to test binding affinity of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin-two commercially available fluoroquinolones, to SARS-CoV-2 S-, E- and TMPRSS2 proteins, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and papain-like protease (PLPRO). Chloroquine and dexamethasone were used as reference positive controls. When analyzing the molecular docking data it was noticed that ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin possess lower binding energy with S protein as compared to the references. In the case of TMPRSS2 protein and PLPRO protease the best docked ligand was levofloxacin and in the case of E proteins and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase the best docked ligands were levofloxacin and dexamethasone. Moreover, a molecular dynamics study also reveals that ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin form a stable complex with E- and TMPRSS2 proteins, RNA polymerase and papain-like protease (PLPRO). The revealed data indicate that ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin could interact and potentially inhibit crucial SARS-CoV-2 proteins.