Upregulated-gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and apoptotic markers through inflammatory, oxidative and apoptosis mediated signaling pathways in Bovine Pneumonia
Shaukat, A.; Hanif, S.; Shaukat, I.; Shukat, R.; Rajput, S.A.; Jiang, K.; Akhtar, M.; Yang, Y.; Guo, S.; Shaukat, I.; Akhtar, M.; Shaukat, S.; Yang, L.; Deng, G.
Microbial Pathogenesis 155: 104935
Pneumonia is the acute inflammation of lung tissue and is multi-factorial in etiology. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a harmful pathogen present as a normal flora of skin and nares of dairy cattle. In bovine pneumonia, S. aureus triggers to activates Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs), that further elicits the activation of the inflammation via NF-κB pathway, oxidative stress and apoptotic pathways. In the current study, pathogen-associated gene expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and apoptotic markers in the lung tissue of cattle was explored in bovine pneumonia. Fifty lung samples collected from abattoir located in Wuhan city, Hubei, China. Histopathologically, thickening of alveolar wall, accumulation of inflammatory cells and neutrophils in perivascular space, hyperemia, hemorrhages and edema were observed in infected lungs as compared to non-infected lung samples. Furthermore, molecular identification and characterization were carried by amplification of S. aureus-specific nuc gene (270 base pairs) from the infected and non-infected lung samples to identify the S. aureus. Moreover, qPCR results displayed that relative mRNA levels of TLR2, TLR4, pro-inflammatory gene (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) and apoptosis-associated genes (Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9) were up-regulated except Bcl-2, which is antiapoptotic in nature, and oxidative stress related genes (Nrf2, NQO1, HO-1 and GCLC) which was down-regulated in infected pulmonary group. The relative protein expression of NF-κB, mitochondria-mediated apoptosis gene was up-regulated while Bcl-2 and Nrf2 pathway genes were downregulated in infected cattle lungs. Our findings revealed that genes expression levels of inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress and apoptosis were associated with host immunogenic regulatory mechanisms in the lung tissue during infection. Conclusively, the present study provides insights of active immune response via TLRs-mediated inflammatory, oxidative damage, and apoptotic paradox.