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Viroinformatics approach to explore the inhibitory mechanism of existing drugs repurposed to fight against COVID-19

Viroinformatics approach to explore the inhibitory mechanism of existing drugs repurposed to fight against COVID-19

European Journal of Pharmacology 885: 173496

ISSN/ISBN: 0014-2999

PMID: 32841640

DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173496

The rapid breakout of the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared pandemic with serious global concern due to high morbidity and mortality. As we enter the phase beyond limitations there is an urgent need for explicit treatment against COVID-19. To face this immediate global challenge, drug development from scratch is a lengthy process and unrealistic to conquer this battle. Drug repurposing is an emerging and practical approach where existing drugs, safe for humans, are redeployed to fight this harder to treat disease. A number of multi clinical studies have repurposed combined cocktail (remdesivir + chloroquine and favipiravir + chloroquine) to be effective against COVID-19. However, the exact mechanistic aspect has not yet been revealed. In the present study, we have tried to decipher the mechanistic aspects of existing medicines at the viral entry and replication stage via the structural viroinformatics approach. Here we implied the molecular docking and dynamic simulations with emphasis on the unique structural properties of host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), SARS-CoV2 spike protein and RNA dependent RNA polymerase enzyme (RdRp) of the SARS-CoV2. Deep structural analysis of target molecules exposed key binding residues and structural twists involved in binding with important pharmacophore features of existing drugs [(7-chloro-N-[5-(diethylamino)pentan-2-yl]quinolin-4-amine (chloroquine),N-[[4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl]methyl]-1,2-oxazole-5-carboxamide N-[[4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl]methyl]-1,2-oxazole-5-carboxamide) (SSAA09E2), 2-ethylbutyl (2S)-2-{[(S)-{[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-{4-aminopyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-7-yl}-5-cyano-3 (remdesivir) and 6-Fluor-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2-pyrazincarboxamid (favipiravir)]. It is evident from this structural informatics study that combo of chloroquine + SSAA09E2 with remdesivir or favipiravir could significantly restrain the virus at the entry and replication stage. Thus, drug repurposition is an attractive approach with reduced time and cost to treat COVID-19, we don't have enough time as the whole world is lockdown and we are in urgent need of an obvious therapeutics' measures.

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Accession: 072865876

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